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Friday, June 24, 2011

HIV or AIDS


AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is a disease caused as a result of the proliferation of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in the human body, where it attacks white blood cells (CD4 cells) resulting in damage to the immune system. The loss or reduction in body resistance is easy to make a patient infected with various diseases, including ailments.

The virus HIV attacks CD4 cells and makes it a breeding ground for new HIV virus, and then destroyed so it can not be used anymore. As we all know that white blood cells is necessary for the immune system. Without the immune system so that when our body are attacked by disease, our body are weak and do not try to fight the disease and consequently we may die even if exposed to influenza or the common cold.

This disease was popular since introduced In 1983,in the United States and France Fouunded the virus that causes AIDS, now known as HIV, the group of Retroviruses. While HIV infection is developing of a low CD4 cell count (<200 cells/mm3) or any one of a long list of complications of any infection ranging from a variety of so-called "opportunistic infections," cancers, neurologic symptoms, and wasting syndromes,then required to develop AIDS, This is actual definition of AIDS.

Often all the people are afraid to diagnose for HIV or AIDS, and caused unaware that they are infected with HIV. Less than 1% of the sexually active urban population in Africa has been diagnosed, and this proportion is even lower in rural populations. Furthermore, only 0.5% of pregnant women attending urban health facilities are counseled, tested or receive their test results. Also, this proportion is even lower in rural health facilities. Therefore, donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research are screened for HIV.

Many laboratories are using fourth generation screening tests to detect anti-HIV antibody (IgG and IgM) and the HIV p24 antigen. These tests are usually extracted from venous blood. The detection of HIV antibody or antigen in a patient previously known to be negative is evidence of HIV infection. Individuals whose first specimen indicates evidence of HIV infection will have a repeat test on a second blood sample to confirm the results.

Screening of the virus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during the window period is possible, and evidence suggests that an infection may be earlier discovered than when using a fourth generation EIA screening test.The window period (the time between initial infection and the development of screenable antibodies against the virus infection) can vary fast it can take 3–6 months to seroconvert and to get the result.

Positive results pointed by PCR are confirmed by antibody tests. These tests Routinely for infection in new birth and infants (i.e., patients less than 2 years), born from mothers who's known infected HIV-positive , have no value because of the presence of maternal antibody to HIV in the child's blood. HIV infection can only be diagnosed by PCR, screening for HIV pro-viral DNA in the children's lymphocytes.

When the human body exposed to the HIV virus does not directly cause disease or AIDS, but it takes a long time and even years for HIV to cause AIDS or HIV positive deadly.

Mode of HIV or AIDS Transmission :

  1. From the blood. blood transfusion for example,contaminated infected HIV blood on the exposure damaged skin, needle prick, etc..
  2. From semen, semen (sperm or semen of men). for example: a man who having free sex with many partner without using protection usually condom, oral sex, etc.
  3. Through the vaginal fluid in women. eg Women who have free sex without any protection, borrowing sex toys, oral sex, etc..
  4. Through Mother's Milk (ASI). eg; Baby drinking milk from a mother HIV positive, Female partners breast milk drink, etc..


Body fluids that do not contain HIV virus from somebody with HIV positive among others saliva (saliva or spit), feces (stool), tears, sweat and urine water (urine).

Sign and Symptom:

A person who affected by the HIV virus at the early onset usually do not described typical signs and symptoms, the patient only has a common fever for 3 to 6 weeks, depend on the immune system when the HIV virus infected in the body. Once conditions improved, people affected by the HIV virus will stay healthy in recent years and slowly decreased anti body be come weak then to fall ill because of recurrent fever or simple infections attacks. One way to get certainty is to undergo the HIV Antibody Test, especially if the person feels has conducted activities that are at risk of contracting the HIV virus.

Initial signs and symptoms appear in people with AIDS of which are the following:

1. Respiratory tract, The Patients experiencing shortness of breath, stop breathing for a moment, coughing, chest pain and fever virus infection of other bleak (pneumonia). Frequently the diagnosis at an early stage of HIV infection or AIDS is suspected TB.

2. Gastrointestinal tract. AIDS patients signs and symptoms such as loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, often fungal diseases of the mouth and esophagus, as well as having chronic diarrhea.

3. weight of the body. Patients experience that we called depletion or wasting syndrome, that is losing of the body weight up to 10% below the rate of protein and energy systems in the body, known as malnutrition and malabsorption in the digestive system as a result of chronic diarrhea,causing tired and weak.

4. Nervous system. The occurrence of central nervous disorders so that less memory, headaches, difficulty concentrating, are often looked confused and legs slow response. At the end of the nervous system (peripheral) will cause pain and tingling in the palms of the hands and feet, lack of tendon reflexes, always have low blood pressure and can effect to impotence.

5. Integumentary system (skin tissue). The patient suffered an attack of chickenpox virus (herpes simplex) or fire smallpox (hcrpes zoster) and various skin diseases that cause pain in the skin tissue. Others have hair on the skin tissue infections (Folliculities), dry skin mottled (outer layer of skin cracks) as well as eczema or psoriasis.

6. Urinary and reproductive tract in women. Patients often have a vaginal fungal disease, it is as an early sign of HIV infection. Injury to the urinary tract, syphillis disease, and compared with men, women suffer more than a urinary tract infection. Other people with AIDS are many women who experience inflammation of the cavity (bone) pelvis known as the 'pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)' terms and have irregular menstrual periods.

Management and treatment of AIDS

Apart from the various countries continue to conduct research in addressing HIV-AIDS, but until now there is no cure to AIDS, including serum or vaccine that can cure people of HIV virus that causes AIDS. The purpose of the provision of drugs in people with AIDS is to help increase endurance, improve the quality of life for those who know the HIV virus in an effort to reduce the number of births and deaths.

We are all expected to do not isolate and avoid people with HIV because they need help and support in order to continue to live without much of the burden and accept the situation with sincerity.

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